Washington: Smokers who are inclined to take a few puffs soon after waking up may face an increased risk of developing lung, head and neck cancers than smokers who do it later.
Joshua Muscat, from the Penn State College of Medicine, Hershey, and colleagues investigated whether early morning puffing boosts smokers' risk of lung and head and neck cancers.
"These smokers have higher levels of nicotine and possibly other tobacco toxins in their body, and they may be more addicted than smokers who refrain from smoking for a half hour or more," said Muscat.
The lung cancer analysis included 4,775 lung cancer cases, all of whom were regular cigarette smokers, according to Penn State statement.
Compared with those who smoked more than 60 minutes after waking, those who smoked 31 to 60 minutes after waking were 1.31 times more likely to develop lung cancer, and those who smoked within 30 minutes were 1.79 times more likely to develop lung cancer.
The head and neck cancer analysis included 1,055 head and neck cancer cases and 795 controls, all with a history of cigarette smoking.
Compared with individuals who smoked more than 60 minutes after waking up, individuals who smoked 31 to 60 minutes after waking were 1.42 times more likely to develop head and neck cancer.