Indian spinners struck at regular intervals in the second session as the visitors' lost four wickets for 86 runs.
Earlier, Australia took lunch at 34 for 1 in their second innings on day four after conceding a 192-run lead to India earlier in the day, with MS Dhoni having made 224 and Bhuvneshwar Kumar 38.
In the morning session, Dhoni added 18 to his overnight total before he gloved a short ball from Pattinson down the leg side for 224 - eight short of the highest score by a Test wicketkeeper.
R Ashwin removed Australian opener Shane Watson for 17 runs just before lunch on day four after India took 192-run lead. (BCCI)