Steven Smith contributed 46 before getting out while Peter Siddle was not out on 47 at stumps on Day 1 to take Australia to 231/8 after Ashwin's four wickets rocked the top order.
Ajinkya Rahane was handed a Test debut in place of injured Shikhar Dhawan, while Shane Watson replaced Michael Clarke as Australia skipper.
Australia make four changes to the side that played in Mohali. Matthew Wade comes in for Brad Haddin. Mitchell Johnson and James Pattinson replace Mitchell Starc and Xavier Doherty. Glenn Maxwell comes in for Moises Henriques.
R Ashwin cleaned up Ed Cowan to take his first wicket on day one of the fourth Test in Delhi. (BCCI)
India: Murali Vijay, Ajinkya Rahane, Cheteshwar Pujara, Sachin Tendulkar, Virat Kohli, MS Dhoni(w/c), Ravindra Jadeja, Ravichandran Ashwin, Bhuvneshwar Kumar, Ishant Sharma, Pragyan Ojha
Australia: Ed Cowan, David Warner, Shane Watson(c), Phillip Hughes, Steven Smith, Matthew Wade(w), Glenn Maxwell, Peter Siddle, James Pattinson, Mitchell Johnson, Nathan Lyon