Answers must be written in Punjabi - Gurumukhi Script
Origin of Punjabi language: different stages of development and recent development in Punjabi language; characteristics of Punjabi phonology and the study of its tones; classification of vowels and consonants.
Punjabi morphology: the number-gender system (animate and inanimate), prefixes, affixes and different categories of Post positions; Punjabi word formation- Tatsam, Tad Bhav, forms; Sentence structure, the notion of subject and object in Punjabi; Noun and verb phrases.
Language and dialect: the notions of dialect and idiolect; major dialects of Punjabi; Pothohari, Majhi, Doabi, Malwai, Puadhi; the validity of speech variation on the basis of social stratification, the distinctive features of various dialects with special reference to tones. Language and script; origin and development of Gurmukhi; suitability of Gurmukhi for Punjabi. Classical background; Nath Jogi Sahit
Medieval literature: Gurmat, Sufti, Kissa and Var Janamsakhis.
Different literary trends
Modern trends: Mystic, Romantic, Progressive and Neomystic (Vir Singh, Puran Singh, Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Bawa Balwant, Pritam Singh Safeer, J.S. Neki).
Experimentalist (Jasbir Singh Ahluwalia, Ravinder Ravi, Ajaib Kamal)
Aesthetes (Harbhajan Singh, Tara Singh)
Neo-progressive (Pash. Jagtar, Patar)
Origin and Development of Genres
Folk literature: folk songs, folk tales, riddles, proverbs
Epic (Vir Singh, Avtar Singh, Azad Mohan Singh)
Lyric (Gurus, Sufis and Modern Lyricists-Mohan Singh, Amrita Pritam, Shiv Kumar, Harbhajan Singh)
Drama (I.C. Nanda, Harcharan Singh, Balwant Gargi, S.S. Sekhon, Charan Das Sidhu)
Novel (Vir Singh, Nanak Singh, Jaswant Singh Kanwal, K.S. Duggal, Sukhbir, Gurdial Singh, Dalip Kaur Tiwana, Swaran Chandan)
Short Story (Sujan Singh, K.S. Virk. Prem Parkash, Waryam Sandhu)
Socio-cultural influences: Sanskrit, Persian, and Western
Essay (Puran Singh, Teja Singh, Gurbaksh Singh)
Literary Criticism (S.S. Sekhon, Attar Singh, Kishan Singh, Harbhajan Singh, Najam Hussain Sayyad)
This paper will require first-hand reading of the texts prescribed and will be designed to test the candidate’s critical ability.
Sheikh Farid: The complete Bani as included in the Adi Granth.
Guru Nanak: Japu Ji Baramah, Asa di Var
Bulleh Shah: Kafian
Waris Shah: Heer
Jhah Mohammad: Jangnama (Jang Singhan te Firangian)
Dhani Ram Chatrik (Poet): Chandan Vari, Sufi Khana, Nawan Jahan
Nanak Singh (Novelist): Chitta Lahu, Pavittar Papi, Ek Mian Do Talwaran
Gurbaksh Singh (Essayist): Zindagi di Ras, Nawan Shivala, Merian Abhul Yadaan.
Balraj Sahni (Travelogue): Mera Roosi Safarnama, Mera Pakistani Safarnama
Balwant Gargi (Dramatist): Loha Kutt, Dhuni-di-Agg, Sultan Razia
Sant Singh Sekhon (Critic): Sahityarth, Parsidh Punjabi Kavi, Punjabi Kav Shiromani