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India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures

August 12, 2011, 7:19 pm
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • It is 65 years since India's freedom at midnight. We take a look at the struggle that led to the moment in pictures most have not seen before.

    In this picture, on August 17, 1960 Indian prime minister Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1889-1964) addresses the crowd in Delhi, on the occasion of India's 14th Independence day. Above him flies the national flag of India.
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India has been home to several ancient civilisations and empires, some dating back to more than 2,000 BC. Culture and religions have flourished over the millennia, and foreign influence has ebbed and flowed. The image above shows the repulse of a sortie during the Siege of Delhi, a conflict of the Indian Rebellion of 1857. The rebels advance on a British battery, who repel them with swords, bayonets and rifles. A lithograph by E Walker, after a drawing by Captain GF Atkinson. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The mutiny of 1857 was the first anti-British agitation on Indian soil. In the image above, British troops in Delhi during the 'Indian Rebellion of 1857'. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The mutiny was a revolution of sorts. The image shows a scene from the battle at Cawnpore (Kanpur) where an entire British garrison, including women and children, was wiped out in 1857 during the Indian Mutiny. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In this 1857 image, Indian soldiers (sepoys) of the Bengal army of the British East India Company are seen rebelling in a battle scene during the Indian Mutiny (1857 - 1859). Original Artwork: Engraving entitled - Defeat Of The Sealkote Mutineers By General Nicholson's Column (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In 1858, India comes under direct rule of the British crown after a failed Indian mutiny. After their capture of Delhi the Indian mutineers lost the city to British forces who extracted swift reprisals by hanging the leaders. Two of them are hanging from a gallows. (Photo by Felice Beato/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In 1857, disarmament of the 26th Indian regiment at Barrackpore during the Indian Mutiny. Illustration - WHD (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • 1857: British soldiers storming Delhi during the Indian Mutiny. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The rebellion by the soldiers had shaken the foreign rulers. They stubbed it out with vengeance. In the image above, in 1857 holding the dead body of his wife, Major Skene shoots himself as Indian soldiers close in on him during the Indian Mutiny at Jhansi, India. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The final spark was provided by the rumoured use of cow and pig fat in the newly-introduced Pattern 1853 Enfield rifle cartridges. Soldiers had to bite the cartridges with their teeth before loading them into their rifles, and the reported presence of cow and pig fat was offensive to both Hindu and Muslim soldiers. Indian soldiers at an army barracks during the Indian Mutiny, 1857. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Under the Government of India Act 1858, the Company was deprived of its involvement in ruling India, with its territory being transferred to the direct authority of the British government. circa 1880: The soldiers of the Indian army who constitute the Viceroy of India's bodyguard. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • A group of officers present at the Siege of Delhi during the Indian Rebellion, 1857. From left to right, Surgeon Campbell Brown, Captain Chesney, Major A Bunny BHA, Colonel Ewart AAG, Colonel D Stewart DAG, Captain Tytler, Major R Lawrence, Major General Welchman CB, Captain H Hayley BNI, Captain Gully, Captain Wauchope, B Arty, Colonel H Norman, Major Maisey DJA, Major H Vicars, Major J, Hills VC, Surgeon Scott, Captain K Coghill, Captain A Lindsay, Captain M Elliott, Major F Roberts VC (1832 - 1914), Brigadier General J Brind CB, Captain R Pemberton and Major M Sankey. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The 1857 mutiny by Indian soldiers, then called 'sepoys', led to significant change in how India was to be controlled by the British. In this image from circa 1915, Indian signallers from the 1st Regiment of Bombay Infantry keep watch from a hillside lookout post and relay their sightings to the troops. (Photo by Bremner/Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • A poster for an exhibition of 'Hamilton's New Overland Route to India' at the Egyptian Hall in London, 1876. The route encompasses Paris, Mount Cenis, Brindisi and the Suez Canal. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Circa 1900: In front of a temple a crowd watches a widow at her husband's funeral as she prepares for 'suttee', whereby a widow of a dead man commits suicide by throwing herself on his funeral pyre. (Photo by Henry Guttmann/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Besides spices and cloth, opium was one of the major exports of the Empire. This 1882 image shows the Sino-Indian opium trade. Scenes from an opium factory at Patna, culminating in the opium fleet descending the Ganges on its way to Calcutta. Original Publication: The graphic published July 8, 1882 (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Life in India for the foreigners was one long extended summer holiday. King George V inspects the day's kill after a tiger hunt in India during his royal visit to celebrate his accession to the throne. Original Artwork: From the 'King Emperor's Indian Durbar Tour of 1911 -1912' (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • A page from the Illustrated London News of 14th August 1897 covering the uprisings against British rule in the Swat Valley, north-west India (now Pakistan). Illustrations show the British army's encampments in the area, as well as Chakdara Fort and the bridge over the swat river (bottom right) and members of the 45th Sikh regiment (centre, right). (Photo by Illustrated London News/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Followers of Mahatma Gandhi, in 1922, burned down a police station at Chauri Chaura which claimed the lives of 23 Police officers.(Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Police charge demonstrators at the Esplanade Maidan in Bombay with lathis. The protest was organised by the National Congress Party. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876 - 1948 ) leader of the All India Muslim League and first governor general of Pakistan. (Photo by Three Lions/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Police confront Indian protesters in Bombay after a meeting of the National Congress at Esplanade Maidan was banned. An argument about the ownership of the esplanade ensued and soon escalated into a small battle, the police defeating the unarmed Congress volunteers, women and children, by beating them with heavy lathis. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Calcutta policemen use tear gas bombs during the communal riots in the city. The communal riots lasted 5 days; at least 2,000 were killed, and over 4,000 injured. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Mahatma Gandhi eating at his home, whilst living in seclusion after his release from prison by the British authorities. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • 2,000 people were killed and over 4,000 injured during rioting in Calcutta. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The partition drew the barbed wire separating not only the country but the people as well. At the conference in New Delhi where Lord Mountbatten disclosed Britain's partition plan for India (left to right). Indian nationalist leader Jawaharlal Nehru (1869 - 1964), adviser to Mountbatten Lord Ismay, Viceroy of India Lord Louis Mountbatten, and President of the All-India Muslim League Muhammad Ali Jinnah. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 - 1964) addresses a crowd from the balcony of his house in Simla, India. (Photo by Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • May 9, 1938: Mahatma Gandhi is seen with a group of congressmen at the frontier between India and Afghanistan. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Citizens celebrate India's independence from British rule in the streets of Calcutta. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The Congress Party's general strike in Bombay in protest against the Constitutional reforms introduced in April. Cyclists carry placards which read 'Wreck This Slave Constitution'. Original Publication: Picture Post - 1057 - India - What Civil Disobedience Means. (Photo by Felix Man/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • August 21, 1947: A mile long procession of people from all communities makes its way along a street in Bombay during the celebrations to mark the founding of the Indian Republic. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In this August 10, 1942 picture, demonstrators lying on the ground to avoid clouds of tear gas released by the police when they refused to disperse after protesting against the arrest of Gandhi and other National Congress leaders. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • April 1926: Police in Calcutta removing burning wood piled up in front of a building after riots between Hindus and Muslims. Missiles thrown from the top of neighbouring buildings litter the streets. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • May 17, 1934: One of the Bengalis who had tried to assassinate the Governor of Bengal, Sir John Anderson, being carried away from the scene of the incident. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • September 1, 1930: An Indian volunteer lies in front of a cartload of imported British cloths being taken to be sold in Bombay, following Gandhi's method of peaceful protest. Dissension by Indian nationalists seeking dominion status for India had reached a peak by 1930. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • 1919: Machine gun section of a Border Regiment protecting roadworkers from attacking tribesmen on the North West Frontier, India. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • April 26, 1926: Troops in a street in north Calcutta where they are restoring order during unrest between Hindus and Muslims. Riots are believed to have been provoked by playing music outside a mosque when Muslims were assembled at prayer. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • 1946: Crowds surging through the streets setting fire to lorries and cars during rioting in Bombay. (Photo by Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • January 29, 1946: Casualties receiving attention after being injured in riots in Bombay, when police tried to alter the route of an unauthorised religious procession. The procession was also intended to commemorate the birthday of Indian Nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose, who died the year before in a plane crash. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Mahatma Gandhi fasts in protest against British rule after his release from prison in Poona, India. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • January 29, 1946: The police form a human barricade during an unauthorised religious procession through Bombay, which soon turned into a riot. The procession was also intended to commemorate the birthday of Indian Nationalist leader Subhas Chandra Bose, who died the year before in a plane crash. (Photo by Central Press/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Circa 1915: Trams passing the grand facade of Victoria Railway Station in Bombay. (Photo by General Photographic Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • November 27, 1946: Gurkha troops board a train at Foor-Poon, en route for the riot centre of Taregea. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • June 23, 1911: The Begum of Bhopal, with her family, rides in an open top carriage, as part of the Royal procession to celebrate King George V's Coronation. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • 1930: Mahatma Gandhi, and politician Sarojini Naidu, with a garland, during the Salt March protesting against the government monopoly on salt production. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • March 28, 1942: Sir Stafford Cripps and Pandit Nehru (1869 - 1964) in New Delhi. Cripps had visited India to offer the country Dominion status. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • January 1922: Indian nationalist leader and organizer of the Indian National Congress's campaign of passive non-cooperation, Mahatma Gandhi with his wife, shortly before his arrest for conspiracy. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Circa 1935: A signed portrait of Mahatma Gandhi. He campaigned for tolerance and social reform and an end to discrimination against the "untouchables". (Photo by General Photographic Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Jawaharlal Nehru, President of the Indian Congress, with his daughter future Indian prime minister, Indira Nehru (Indira Priyardarshini Nehru, 1917 - 1984) in Bombay. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • August 24, 1946: A section of the huge crowd which attended the Muslim League Direct Action Day meeting in Calcutta in protest against British Cabinet negotiations on India. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • August 1947: Indian nationalist leader Jawaharlal Nehru (1869 - 1964) on the occasion of his becoming premier of the new Union of India, asking members of the Constituent Assembly to take a pledge of loyalty to the new state. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • April 26, 1926: Troops in northern Calcutta during disturbances between Hindus and Mohammedans with Marwaris. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Members of the Indian National Congress Mahatma Gandhi, Subhas Chandra Bose and Vallabhai Patel during the 51st Indian National Congress. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Indian National Congress is founded as forum for emerging nationalist feeling. circa 1940: Indian nationalist leader, Subhas Chandra Bose (1897 - 1945). (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In this June 9, 1939 image, Mahatma Gandhi, centre, waiting for a car outside Bifla House, Bombay, on his return from Rajkoy. Amongst the group with him are Pandit Nehru(left) and Vallabhai Patel (right). (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In this picture, Congress launches 'Quit India' movement. A demonstration in Madras, calling for a boycott of the Simon Commission. The demonstrators are carrying black banners with the slogan 'Simon Go Back'. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • National volunteers, supporters of Mahatma Gandhi march through the streets of Madras carrying the banner of home rule, 1930. (Photo by Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • Nationalist figurehead Mahatma Gandhi launches anti-British civil disobedience campaign. In this picture, Gandhi leaves the home of Muhammad Ali Jinnah (1876 - 1948, left), founder of the Muslim League, en route to the Viceroy's Lodge in Delhi, 24th November 1939. (Photo by Kulwant Roy/Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The death toll during communal riots in Calcutta, India, rose to over 2,000, with 4,000 injured. A corpse is surrounded by people armed with Lathis, a lethal weapon in trained hands. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • In this picture, Viscount Mountbatten (1900 - 1979), the new Viceroy of India and his wife Edwina (1901 - 1960) invite Mahatma Gandhi (1869 - 1948) to the Viceroy's house in Delhi, 31st March 1947. (Photo by Topical Press Agency/Hulton Archive/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • August 1947: Pandit Jawaharlal Nehru (1869 - 1964) making his speech on the midnight session of the Indian CA when the new self-governing dominion of India was formed. Chinese, American and Dutch diplomats are seated to the left. (Photo by William Stacey/Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • February 1948: A crowd watching the funeral procession of Indian statesman and advocate of non-violence Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) who was assassinated in Delhi. (Photo by Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • The body of Indian nationalist leader Mahatma Gandhi (Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi) lying in state at Birla House, New Delhi, before the funeral cortege leaves for the burning ghats on the banks of the River Jumna. (Photo by Keystone/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • February 8, 1947: Indian statesman Jawaharlal Nehru (1889 - 1964) moves the resolution for an independent republic in a historic moment at the Constituent Assembly in New Delhi. (Photo by Bert Hardy/Picture Post/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • August 15, 1947: A flag of the new Dominion of India unfurls outside India House, London. (Photo by William Vanderson/Fox Photos/Getty Images)
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  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures
  • India@65: Freedom in 65 pictures